Template:Refimprove The Intelligence Directorate (Template:Lang-es, or DI, formerly known as Dirección General de Inteligencia or DGI) is the main state intelligence agency of the government of Cuba. The DI, under the big umbrella of the MININT, was founded in late 1961 by Cuba's Ministry of the Interior shortly after the Cuban Revolution. The DI is responsible for all foreign intelligence collection and comprises six divisions divided into two categories, which are the Operational Divisions and the Support Divisions. Manuel "Redbeard" Piñeiro was the first director of the DI in 1961 and his term lasted until 1964. Another top leader who directed the famous office, located on Linea and A, Vedado, was the now retired Div. General, Jesus Bermudez Cutiño. He was transferred from being the Chief of the Army Intelligence ( DIM ) to the Ministry of Interior, because of the big shake-up due to the Ochoa-Abrantes affair in 1989. The current head of the DI is Brig. General Eduardo Delgado Rodriguez. The total number of people working for the DI is about 15,000.
Recruiting Techniques Edit
New recruits do research within the Ministry, mostly on counter-intelligence fields (which has its own five years career academy) and also, over regular college students, who are recruited around the second year on their programs.Template:Citation needed Those students mostly study languages, history, communications and sociology.Template:Citation needed Once they get their diplomas, they undergo several months of official intelligence training, and a year or so after, they receive the rank of lieutenant.Template:Citation needed
KGB relationship Edit
The relationship between the Soviet Union's KGB and the Cuban DI was complex and marked by times of extremely close cooperation and times of extreme competition. The Soviet Union saw the new revolutionary government in Cuba as an excellent proxy agent in areas of the world where Soviet involvement was not popular on a local level. Nikolai Leonov, the KGB Chief in Mexico City, was one of the first Soviet officials to recognize Fidel Castro's potential as a revolutionary and urged the Soviet Union to strengthen ties with the new Cuban leader. Moscow saw Cuba as having far more appeal with new revolutionary movements, western intellectuals, and members of the New Left with Cuba's perceived David and Goliath struggle against US imperialism. Shortly after the Cuban Missile Crisis in 1963, Moscow invited 1,500 DI agents, including Che Guevara, to the KGB's Moscow Center for intensive training in intelligence operations.
Dismayed by Cuban debacles in Zaire and Bolivia as well as a perceived growing independence from Moscow, the Soviets sought a more active role in shaping the DI. In 1970 a team of KGB advisors led by General Viktor Semyonov was sent to the DI to purge it of officers and agents considered anti-Soviet by the KGB.Template:Citation needed Manuel Piñeiro, becoming increasingly upset at the co-optation of the DI by the Soviets, was removed during the 1970 purge and replaced with the pro-Soviet José Méndez Cominches as head of the DI. Semyonov also took this opportunity to oversee a rapid expansion of the DI's western operations. By 1971, 70% of the Cuban diplomats in London were actually DI agents and proved invaluable to Moscow after the British government's mass expulsion of Soviet intelligence officers.
In 1962, the Soviet Union opened its largest foreign SIGINT site in Lourdes, Cuba, approximately 30 miles (50 km) outside of Havana. The Lourdes facility is reported to cover a 28 square mile (73 km2) area with 1,000-1,500 Soviet and later solely Russian engineers, technicians, and military personnel working at the base. Those familiar with the Lourdes facility have confirmed that the base has multiple groups of tracking dishes and its own satellite system, with some groups used to intercept telephone calls, faxes, and computer communications, in general, and with other groups used to cover targeted telephones and devices. 
Operations abroad Edit
Throughout its 40-year history the DI has been actively involved in aiding leftist movements, primarily in Latin America, Africa and the Middle East. There have also been allegations that Cuban DI agents interrogated US POWs Template:Citation needed held at the Cu Loc POW camp in North Vietnam.
Shortly after the election of Salvador Allende in November 1970, the DI worked extremely closely to strengthen Allende's increasingly precarious position Template:Citation needed. The Cuban DI station chief Luis Fernandez Oña married Allende's daughter Beatriz, who later committed suicide in Cuba.
Shortly after a popular bloodless coup in Grenada, led by Maurice Bishop, the Cuban DI sent advisors to the island nation to assist the new government. The DI was also instrumental in convincing the Soviet Union to aid Grenada, aid which Grenadian General Hudson Austin called essential to the success of the Caribbean anti-imperialist movement.Template:Citation needed The DI coordinated 780 Cuban engineers and intelligence operatives.Template:Citation needed
Beginning in 1967 the DI had begun to establish ties with various Nicaraguan revolutionary organizations. The Soviets were upset at what they saw as Cuba upstaging the KGB in Nicaragua.Template:Citation needed By 1970 the DI had managed to train hundreds of Sandinista guerrilla leaders and had vast influence over the organization. In 1969 the DI had financed and organized an operation to free the jailed Sandinistan leader Carlos Fonseca from his prison in Costa Rica.Template:Citation needed Fonseca was captured shortly after the jail break, but after a plane carrying executives from the United Fruit Company was hijacked by the Sandinista National Liberation Front (FSLN), he was freed and allowed to travel to Cuba.
The DI, with Fidel Castro's personal blessingTemplate:Citation needed, also collaborated with the FSLN on the botched assassination attempt of Turner B. Shelton, the US ambassador in Managua and a close friend to the Somoza family.Template:Citation needed The FSLN managed to secure several hostages exchanging them for safe passage to Cuba and a one million dollar ransom. After the successful ousting of Anastasio Somoza, DI involvement in the new Sandinistan government expanded rapidly. An early indication of the central role that the DI would play in the Cuban-Nicaraguan relationship a meeting in Havana on 27 July 1979, at which diplomatic ties between the two countries were re-established after over 25 years. Julián López Díaz, a prominent DI agent, was named ambassador to Nicaragua.
Cuban military and DI advisors initially brought in during the Sandinistan insurgency, would swell to over 2,500 and operated at all levels of the new Nicaraguan government. Sandinista defector Alvaro Baldizón confirmed that Cuban influence in Nicaragua's Interior Ministry (MINT) was more extensive than was widely believed at the time, and Cuban "advice" and "observations" were treated as though they were orders.Template:Citation needed
Puerto Rico Edit
The DI sought to aid the growing Puerto Rican separatist movement. Dr. Daniel James testified before a U.S. Senate Subcommittee that the DGI, working through Filiberto Ojeda Ríos, organized and trained the Fuerzas Armadas de Liberación Nacional Puertorriqueña (FALN) in 1974. In October 1974, Ríos was arrested and charged with terrorist acts against American hotels in Puerto Rico. Authorities found a substantial amount of Cuban government documents and secret codes in his possession. Shortly after his release on bail he disappeared but was credited with the 1979 unification of Puerto Rico's five principal terrorist groups into the Cuban-directed National Revolutionary Command (CRN).Template:Citation needed
According to the former chief investigator of the U.S. Senate, Alfonso Tarabochia, the DGI began directing criminal activities in Puerto Rico and the eastern and midwestern United States as early as 1974. That June, the secretary general of the Puerto Rican Socialist Party, Juan Marí Bras, met in Havana with Fidel Castro to consolidate party solidarity.
Beginning in September 1974, the incidence of bombings by Puerto Rican extremists, particularly the FALN, escalated sharply. Targets included U.S. companies and public places. The FALN was responsible for a bombing that killed four and wounded dozens at the historic Fraunces Tavern in lower Manhattan on January 25, 1975. Later that year, Fidel Castro sponsored the First World Solidarity Conference for the Independence of Puerto Rico in Havana.
Ríos was killed by the FBI on Friday, September 23, 2005 in a rural village in the town of Hormigueros, Puerto Rico.
Camp Mantanzas Edit
Camp Mantanzas is a training facility operated by the DI and is located outside Havana since early 1962. Many notorious groups and individuals have received or provided training to various revolutionary movements throughout the worldTemplate:Citation needed.
- ↑ Chris Hippner, "A Study Into the Size of the World’s Intelligence Industry" (Master's Thesis, December 2009), 90, http://www.scribd.com/doc/23958185/A-Study-Into-the-Size-of-the-World-s-Intelligence-Industry.
- ↑ Edward González and Kevin McCarthy, “Cuba After Castro: Legacies, Challenges, and Impediments,” RAND (Santa Monica, CA: RAND, 2004), 44, http://www.rand.org/pubs/technical_reports/2005/RAND_TR131.pdf.
- Directorate General of Intelligence (DGI) Ministry of the Interior 
- Dirección General de Inteligencia (DGI), FAS 
- Cuban Armed Forces
- Foro Militar General (Cuban Military and Intelligence Forum)
See also Edit
Template:Portal Template:External national intelligence agenciesde:Dirección de Inteligencia es:Dirección de Inteligencia (Cuba) fr:Dirección de Inteligencia it:Dirección General de Inteligencia he:מנהלת הביון הכללי (קובה) ru:ДГИ tr:Küba İstihbarat Teşkilatı